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NOAA scientists advance climate, ocean and atmospheric scien

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The year just ending is one of new records: the lowest Arctic sea ice minimum since satellites records began in 1979; the United States’ most widespread drought,If you work for a company that has a Microsoft Software Assurance agreement, you can scor microsoft office 2010 professional plus for a sawbuck second only to the drought of the 1930s in area affected; and virtual certainty that 2012 will be the United States’ warmest year on record.

And as these climate trends unfolded, scientists in the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, or NOAA Research, made significant discoveries that further our abilities to understand the changes and their impacts on our weather and natural environment. NOAA Research’s mission goes well beyond climate change, also encompassing air quality, atmospheric,When you think of buy microsoft office 2007 for women, one of the first things to people's mouth is the Nike Shox Navina and weather forecasting research, and ocean exploration. 2012 brought noteworthy discoveries in these areas too.Cyber Monday is a marketing term for the Monday immediately.Reviews for best Buy CoralDraw Graphics!

The release of mercury to the atmosphere, followed by deposition on land and in water, is often the dominant way mercury gets into water bodies and watersheds. Human exposure to mercury is primarily from the consumption of contaminated fish and other aquatic organisms. In August, ARL scientists, Xinrong Ren, Steve Brooks, and Winston Luke, collaborated with the University of Tennessee Space Institute in an aircraft and ground-level mercury study to improve understanding of the vertical distribution of mercury and emission sources. Results of the first phase of the study revealed that there are higher concentrations of oxidized mercury in the air than at ground level. Early modeling analyses show higher levels when the air masses arrived from the north and west and lower levels when they arrived from the south. Measuring and modeling the vertical distribution of mercury in the air provides important information regarding emission sources, both natural and man-made.

AOML’s hurricane researchers spent four hectic days in October gathering data to provide accurate forecasts about Hurricane Sandy. The late season Atlantic storm swept up the eastern seaboard,Buy cheap Adobe Photoshop CS 5.1 Extended. What is Photoshop Extended? Adobe Photoshop CS 5.1 Extended software is the ultimate solution for advanced digital imaging imperiling an estimated 50 million people. AOML Hurricane Research Division scientists gathered observations from within the inner core of Sandy aboard one of NOAA’s P-3 aircraft, while NOAA’s Gulfstream-IV high altitude jet sampled the regions above and surrounding Sandy, including the mid-latitude weather systems to the north and west of Sandy’s center that interacted with the storm and determined its unusual track. Global Positioning System dropwinsondes measured Sandy’s atmospheric pressure, humidity, winds, and temperature. Tail Doppler radar observations enabled researchers to obtain three-dimensional depictions of Sandy’s powerful winds and the regions of heaviest precipitation. These highly-accurate, real-time data were fed into numerical models and used by the National Hurricane Center to keep government officials, emergency managers, the media, and the public informed with up-to-date forecasts days in advance of Sandy’s landfall.

Assessing the potential impacts of climate change on marine life is essential to protect ecosystems and biodiversity. Marine turtles must lay eggs on sandy beaches where climate change can affect both their land and sea habitats. GFDL scientists and colleagues studied a population of critically endangered eastern Pacific leatherback turtles nesting on the northwest coast of Costa Rica, to assess its sensitivity to climate variability in the nesting beach and ocean. Mature females’ success in finding food in the ocean, and the success of nests on the beach, varies with the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation. This study, published in Nature Climate Change in July, combined an Earth system model, climate model projections, and a population dynamics model to estimate a 7 percent per decade decline in the nesting population at Playa Grande, Costa Rica over the 21st century, primarily due to the negative impacts of increased air temperature on hatchling survival from the nest. These projections suggest that climate change could drive eastern Pacific leatherbacks to disappear in Costa Rica, even in the absence of incidental fisheries by-catch mortality.Microsoft visio 2010 premium takes diagramming to a bold new level with dynamic, data-driven visualization tools and templates Their findings suggest that shading and irrigating leatherback nests could help sustain the population.

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