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Overview To ISO/TS 16949:2002 Standards

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ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing international standards is normally carried cut through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for whom a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the week. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of Electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires

approval by at least 75% of the member bodies casting a vote.

In other circumstances, particularly when there is an urgent market requirement for such documents, a technical committee may decide to publish other types of normative document:

  • An ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50% of the members of the parent committee casting a vote;
  • An ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement between the members of a technical committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of the members of the committee casting a vote.

An ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is reviewed after three years with a view to deciding whether it should be confirmed for a further three years. Revised to become an International Standard, or withdrawn. In the case of a confirmed ISO/PAS or ISO/TS, it is reviewed again after six years at which time it has to be either transposed into an International Standard or withdrawn.

The International Automotive Task Force (IATF) and Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc. (JAMA) prepared ISO/TS 16949:2002, with support from ISO/TS 176, Quality management and quality assurance.

This second edition of ISO/TS 16949 cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 16949:1999), which has been technically revised.

The whole standard is exactly as per ISO 9001:2000. The sector-specific supplemental requirement are also defined and documented.

In this Technical Specification, the word "shall" indicates a requirement. The word "should" indicates a recommendation. Paragraphs marked "NOTE" are for guidance in understanding or clarifying the associated requirement.

Where the term "such as" is used, any suggestions given are for guidance only.

In 1997 TC 176 undertook a global survey of users and customers of ISO 9001 and the following significant needs, amongst others, were determined from an analysis of the responses:

  • The revised standards should have increased compatibility with the ISO 14000 series of Environmental Management System Standards.
  • The revised standards should have a common structure based on a process model.
  • Provision should be made for the tailoring of ISO 9001 requirements to omit requirements that do not apply to an organisation.
  • ISO 9001 requirements should include demonstration of continuous improvement and prevention of non-conformity.
  • The revised standards should be simple to use, easy to understand, and use clear language and terminology.
  • The revised standards should be suitable for all sizes of organisations, operating in any economic or industrial sector, and the manufacturing orientation of the current standards should be removed.

In the same year, 1997, TC176 also issued a document entitled "Quality Management Principles and Guidelines on their Application: (ref. ISO/TC176/SC 2/N130).

Whilst the 1994 standard were not developed on the basis of this Quality Management Principles (QMP) there are of course aspects of the standard, which addresses some of their requirements. The 2000 standard have been developed from the Quality Management Plans and the chart below shows how the changes between 1994 and 2000 move the standard closer to the requirements of the technical specification.

WHY ISO/TS 16949:2002? : -

  1. Want to export.
  2. Build technical competence
  3. Provide confidence to customers.
  4. Reduce wasted efforts and resources.
  5. Pathway to Total Quality Management.
  6. Remove inter-departmental hassles.
  7. Assure Top Management commitment and involvement.
  8. Involves all functions, all departments at all levels.
  9. Disciplined way of working.
  10. Structure Quality Management to needs.
  11. Preventive, rather than curative.
  12. Strategic business tool.
  13. Enhances return on investment.
  14. Want to supply in automobile industries like general motors, ford etc.

WHY NOT ISO/TS 16949:2002 (FOR WHOM ISO/TS 16949:2002 IS NOT USEFUL TOOL): -

  1. Do not want to spend money.
  2. Monopoly supplier.
  3. Do not want to export.
  4. Customers do not care.
  5. Unlimited resources.
  6. Do not believe in involving people.
  7. Do not want to train employees.
  8. Enjoy fire fighting and quick fixes.
  9. Believe - Quality does not pay.
  10. Do not want to commit anything on paper.
  11. Expect miracles to overcome challenge.
  12. Have other sources of income and don't want to grow.


The total documentation for a comprehensive quality system under ISO/TS 16949:2002 can be represented by the four-tier system in a pyramid shown in the figure -1

  1. Quality Manual: - It states the Quality Policy and describes the macro level Quality system including details for how the standard requirements are fulfilled in the company.
  1. Quality Procedures: - It is normally called as middle management hand book and describes department activity for a system approach to supply consistent Quality Product. They are considered to be the core of the system documentation and confidential documents. They describe how the tasks and functions of the various departments should be performed to meet the requirements of the ISO/TS 16949:2002 standard and the Quality Policy of the company.
  1. Work Instructions / Control Plan / Processes / Operating Procedure: - These documents are required for the operators and Quality control test method where the absence of such documents affects Quality.
  1. Quality Records, Forms: -      Forms, records etc. are supporting documents used by the company to record information for different procedures followed.

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