Human blood constitutes of many different substances that play a vital role in keeping the blood fresh and volatile. Blood proteins are also one of such protein found in blood plasma (component of blood) that are responsible of carrying out major body functions like transportation, regulation and to carry out smooth activities of immune system in the human body. The major blood proteins present in human plasma are Globulins, albumin, and fibrinogen. All the plasma proteins are synthesized in liver except for the Gamma Globulin, a sub type of globulin protein.
The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights and water solubility values than the albumins. Some globulins are produced in the liver, while others are made by the immune system. The normal concentration of globulins in the blood is about 2.6-4.6 g/dL. Globulins are categorized into four categories Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta and Gamma Globulins and these can be distinguished from one another using the method of serum protein electrophoresis.
Here let’s discuss about the Human Immune Serum Globulins also called as Gamma globulin. They are also termed as immune globulins or antibodies constitute the major part of plasma globulin proteins. These types of globulins are produced by the mature B cells of the immune system and are used by the body's defense system against the foreign invaders like bacteria, infections and viruses. These globulins are further divided into five classes IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE. These globulins play a major role in defending the body against many external attacks so there necessity is crucial in the human body. But every individual must have normal range of Gamma Globulin present in their blood as decreased levels are indicative of an immune deficiency and elevated levels may lead to blood cancers like Multiple Myeloma and certain lymphomas.
Human Immune Serum Globulins or Gamma Globulin are extracted from the healthy donors and are preserved in liquid or powdered state to utilize them in aid to patients with lower level of immunity in their body. They are prescribed in many different forms as per the condition of the patient. There are many medical uses of these globulins which had developed today with latest advancement in technologies in medical world.
Some of the medical uses of Gamma Globulin:
Gamma globulin injections are usually given to the patients in an attempt to temporarily boost their immunity against various diseases or infections. As these globulins are the product derived from human blood, their injections along with blood transfusions and intravenous drug use can pass Hepatitis C to its recipients. Also, its therapy has proven to be a successful therapy for several medical conditions like hepatitis A, measles and the autoimmune disorder Kawasaki disease (abnormal inflammation of the blood vessels) in children. In addition to this gamma globulin therapy can make a kidney donor and recipient compatible regardless of blood and tissue match, and also can boost immunity for people who cannot produce gamma globulins naturally.
However, gamma globulin therapy comes along with a risk of negative side effects. Patients receiving this form of therapy may experience headache, backache, muscle or joint pain, and overall feelings of fatigue or illness. These effects decrease as the body becomes habituated to the therapy. According to researchers these may actually cause a stroke or heart attack in elderly patients with multiple risk factors. However, the Human Immune Serum Globulins packed with goodness can work wonders and act as a firewall against various immune deficiency diseases like HIV, AIDS and cancer etc.
Gamma Globulin relevance in medical use