Development of gross and finer motor skills by Early Childhood Care & Education Walking Walking depends upon postural control (balancing) moving and using hands for initial support. Catching sight of something that interests him or hearing or smelling it, encourages a child’s walking to develop: understanding why and how to walk as well as remembering the way to do it are also important. Balancing State of balance begins to develop during infancy; its progress can be traced in baby’s early ability to stabilize himself. When he sits up and when he later rises to his feet for the first time. The sense of balance matures between the ages of three and five, and it continues to improve, as the baby grows older. In balancing children use their muscles to counteract such external forces as gravity and friction as they stand or move. This difficult task is accomplished with the aid of a constant stream of sensory data supplied by the eyes and the motion receptors of the peripheral nervous system. Working together, these detect even the most minuscule shift in balance, at same time prompting the brain to initiate whatever movements are necessary to re-establish steadiness. Climbing At the age of 3, a child can ascend a stairway unaided, alternating the feet. At 4 he can descend a long stairway alternating the feet, if supported. At 5 he can descend a long stairway unaided, alternating the feet. Running Unlike toddlers, three-year-olds can run with sudden stops and starts. They can turn corners quickly. Running with alternate rhythm of the arms and legs is also learned in the preschool years. Speed in running increases throughout these years. Faster speed is most noticeable in five year-olds. Jumping At the age of 3, a child can jump a distance of 15 to 24 inches, at 4, he can jump a distance of 24 to 33 inches. At 5, he can make a running jump of 28 to 36 inches. Hopping At 3, a child can hop, using largely an irregular series of jumps with some variations added. At 4, hop 4 to 6 steps on one foot. At 5, can easily hop a distance of 16 feet. Throwing Some babies roll and even attempt to throw balls before they are 2 years old. Even at 4, however, a few can throw well. By 6 years, most children are proficient though there are marked variations at every age. Catching Ball catching is more difficult than ball throwing it is later in developing. At 4 years, few children are proficient at his skill, while at 6; approximately two thirds are. At first, children use the whole body to grasp the ball when it is thrown to them. Then they use the arms, with less random movement. Shortly after they are six years old, they begin to perfect a coordinated movement of the hands to catch the ball between the palms. Self-feeding At 2 years children begin to use forks as well as spoons. At 3, they can cut soft food with a knife. At 6, they can cut most meat with a knife. By the time they are ready for school, most children have mastered all the tasks used in self-feeding. Self Dressing At 2, children can put on simple clothes such as T shirts. At 3, they can put on clothes with zippers and buttons. At 6, they can dress themselves completely, even tying bows on shoes.
Development of large and finer motor skills