Obesity is becoming a public health problem in India. It has reached high proportions and the country is following the trend of other developing nations that are steadily becoming more obese. Unhealthy, junk or processed food is becoming more accessible to younger Indians and higher consumption is resulting into accumulation of unwanted fat in their bodies. Many obese people are seeking weight loss surgery options in India. Doctors always recommend loosing weight naturally by following diet plans or vigorous fitness activities. If all these fail to help in weight reduction than the final option can be weight loss surgery. These surgeries are advised to people who have BMI or Body Mass Index value more than 40. Only morbidly obese patient should ideally opt for these bariatric surgeries. There are basic two types of bariatric or weight loss surgery methods used in India. They are restrictive and mal-absorptive surgeries. Both methods have proved to be fruitful in weight loss in different ways.
1) Restrictive weight loss surgery – In this method the size of the stomach is restricted physically either by using an adjustable band or cutting some portion of the stomach. Thus, smaller the stomach the less the patient will eat and less calories will be absorbed. Eventually the patient loses weight after the surgery as he eats less and his stomach gets quickly filled. Popular methods of restrictive surgery are Vertical band Gastroplasty, Adjustable gastric band, and Sleeve Gastrectomy.
2) Mal-absorptive weight loss surgery – These are more invasive surgeries where surgeons physically remove or bypass parts of the digestive tract in the patient’s body. This makes difficult for the digestive system to absorb calories in the food. These surgeries although show good results and patient loses weight after the surgery is performed in couple of months. They have greater risks and side-effects involved in the process. Mal-absorption of nutrients lead to higher mortality rate and the person can become anemic or weak over time. Biliopancreatic diversion, Jejunoileal bypass, and Endoluminal sleeves are some methods of mal-absorptive surgery.
Above are basic types of weight loss surgery methods used in India, which is being constantly revised every year. Currently, these procedures are carried out with the help of laparoscope hence called laparoscopic weight reduction surgeries or laparoscopic bariatric surgeries. Mostly restrictive methods are used worldwide citing less side-effects and better results of the procedure.
Weight loss surgery types in India