Groundwater is one of the most important sources of water to humans, it is a natural system of water storage where rainwater or water from the lakes and rivers gets soaked in the soil and stored into the rock beds. It is a very renewable source of water which given adequate time replenishes its reserves during rains. For humans this water holds a lot of importance because it is a source of drinking water, which is a scarce resource. This natural water is available everywhere and is a primary source of water in the dry parts of the country such as Rajasthan and the agricultural farmlands where it used for irrigation purposes.
The study of such natural source of water is known simply as groundwater study and has gained a lot of importance in recent times because of the rise in the use of natural water in our country for various purposes as mentioned before. The basic issues which ground water study deals with involve its availability and quality. Ground water study are conducted all across the country by private enterprises and government geological departments for variety of reasons, the scale of the study varies from small scale to large scale. The study requires experts who determine the various contours of their study based on their testing of various samples like the upper soil, past diggings for groundwater etc.
There are a lot of reasons why ground water studies are commissioned. A study commissioned by private enterprises is usually for determining the value of the land or plot, as having a water resource helps in lots of ways especially if the land is for industrial purposes. Governments also commission a lot of small scale as well large scale studies for variety of purposes. Pollution is one of the major reasons for such study as it helps to determine the extent of contamination or pollution of the ground water. Also if some aquifers are running dry or losing their ability to replenish, a ground water study can help establish that and measures can be taken to revive it by banning extraction near the region.
This study is also very important in determining Land subsidence which is the lowering of the elevation of the ground due to the depletion of the water levels underneath causing a huge risk to the structures on the ground. A ground water study can possibly help in predicting and correcting depletion of this natural source of water. In a country like India, ground water is a very important resource of water for millions of people and so checking its quality and quantity from time to time is important.
REASONS FOR CONDUCTING GROUND WATER STUDY