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Zhong + wen = Middle [Kingdom] + writing = Chinese
Welcome! Alone among modern languages, Chinese integrates both meaning and pronunciation information in its characters. deciphers this rich information to help students understand, appreciate and remember Chinese characters, one of humanity's greatest and most enduring cultural achievements. Until recent centuries, China had one of the highest literacy rates in the world and more than half of the world's literature was written in Chinese characters. Due to the central role of calligraphy in Chinese art and the vitality of Chinese civilization, Chinese characters have held a similarly preeminent position in the world's art.

Despite these unparalleled achievements, many people in the last century viewed Chinese characters as inferior to the more purely phonetic writing systems of Western languages. As a result, China nearly decided to abolish characters in the 1950s and even now most Chinese are not taught the rich tradition behind their writing system. This website counters the simplistic myth of character inferiority by translating traditional Chinese character etymologies into English to show how Chinese themselves have used and understood the symbols they created.

While Chinese characters are often thought of as overly complex, in fact they are all derived from a couple hundred simple pictographs and ideographs in ways that are usually quite logical and easy to remember. These wen (or zigen) are the true radicals of Chinese as identified by Xu Shen in his classic Shuowen Jiezi nearly 2000 years ago. Xu Shen also devised the bushou, meaning "section headings", to help organize his dictionary into more manageable parts. With minor changes this bushou system has been the foundation of almost all subsequent Chinese dictionaries. Often mistranslated as "radicals", not all of the bushou are true radicals in that some of them can be further broken down into their component wen. Moreover, many of the true radicals are not included in the list of bushou.

This web site and its associated printed dictionary present a series of zipu or "character genealogies" which show graphically the close interconnections between over 4000 characters according to the Shuowen Jiezi and subsequent research by traditional etymologists. Aided by computerized cross-referencing, these charts allow the dictionary to be organized around Xu Shen's true radicals, avoiding the expediency of arbitrarily dividing the dictionary by bushou. This new zipu system effectively generalizes the bushou system by allowing any character to be found if the viewer knows any part of the character or knows any character which shares the same component. Students can quickly locate characters while also better remembering the relations between characters. It is hoped that other dictionary compilers will also recognize the potential that computerization now offers to fully realize Xu Shen's original project.

Since the zipu are based on traditional etymologies, which themselves are based primarily on the "seal" characters from about 2,200 years ago, this dictionary does not represent the current state of research into character etymologies. In the last century far older characters have been uncovered, allowing modern researchers to go beyond the traditional etymologies and obtain a better understanding of the true history of Chinese characters. As this research is systematized and made available on the web, I will link the character entries into the relevant research. I also hope to link the entries directly into web versions of traditional Chinese sources on etymology. For now almost every character entry includes page references to various printed reference sources on traditional etymology.

Since English understandably does not have a specific word for character etymology relative to word etymology, many English speakers unfamiliar with Chinese terminology mistakenly conflate the two. This site deals only with character etymologies. Characters form the basic unit of meaning in Chinese, but not all characters can stand alone as a word and most Chinese words are formed of two separate characters. For instance "zhongwen", meaning the Chinese language, has two characters as explained above. The etymologies of these words are usually quite obvious as long as the individual characters are known - a feature of Chinese which is probably its greatest strength and cannot be adequately duplicated in a simple phonetic writing system. This website does not discuss these word etymologies but rather helps students understand the less transparent character etymologies which are the object of most traditional research on Chinese etymology.

Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.

Saken kommer dock i ett annat läge om statschefen tillika ordföranden i [...]umgås med kriminella element i den undre världen och i övrigt har en sådan livsföring att Sveriges anseende kan skadas. (utrikesnämnden)

grytan puttrade på spisen

School attendance is compulsory in Sweden. That means that all children in Sweden have to attend compulsory schooling beginning in August of the year in which they turn 7. Compulsory schooling lasts nine academic years. Each academic year is divided into two terms – an autumn term and a spring term.

Provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and the special administrative regions, make up the four types of province of administrative division of People's Republic of China (PRC or commonly "China" for short).[

Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under [...]control to 22. (PRC)

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living [...]known to science. (SPECIES)

Chinese names: Traditional naming schemes often followed a pattern of using [...] as part of a two-character given name. (generation names)

Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to [...]. (22)


A province, in the context of Chinese government, is a translation of sheng formally provincial level divisions, which is an administrative division.

They have bright saturated colors.

Det är kommunen eller den som anordnar verksamheten som bestämmer hur mycket en plats i förskola ska kosta. I skollagen står att avgiften ska vara skälig, alltså rimligt hög. Från höstterminen det år barnet fyller 3 år och fram till skolstarten har man rätt till 525 avgiftsfria timmar per år.

A "first-level province" is considered to be a province that was administered by the Republic of China between 1912 and 1949 that is not today administered by the PRC.

Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (將軍) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (副都統) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (盟長), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (驻藏大臣) supervised the administration of Tibet.

Make a clear diet plan with an emphasis on whole grains, fruits and vegetables. A healthy diet plan has a tremendous effect on your overall energy levels.

Those against net neutrality—commonly including internet service providers (ISPs), like Comcast or AT&T—believe that, as providers of internet access, they should be able to distribute bandwidth differently depending on the service. They'd prefer, for example, to create tiers of internet service that's more about paying for priority access than for bandwidth speeds. As such, in theory, they could charge high-bandwidth services—like Netflix, for example—extra money, since their service costs more for Comcast to provide to its customers—or they could charge users, like you and me, extra to access Netflix. They can also provide certain services to you at different speeds. For example, perhaps your ISP might give preferential treatment to Hulu, so it streams Hulu videos quickly and for free, while Netflix is stuck running slowly (or we have to pay extra to access it).

The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.

 The provinces in south coastal area of China - such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and, (mainly) Guangdong - tend to be more industrialized, while regions in the hinterland are less developed.

Instant social life and camaraderie.


Sustainability Score Turns World Order Upside Down

A map of how national development rankings rise or fall when their carbon footprint is factored into the score. Image: Chuluun Togtokh & Owen Gaffney

The United Nations Human Development Index is the world’s all-purpose national scorecard, a single number that represents a country’s success at providing a decent life for its people. But according to a Mongolian ecologist who feels his own country has been led astray, it’s time to update the HDI with a critically missing component: sustainability.
Rankings of the top 28 countries in the United Nations' Human Development Index (left) and the proposed Human Sustainable Development Index (right). Image: Chuluun Togtokh & Owen Gaffney
“My country is likely to become one of the fastest growing economies in the world, but the current HDI offers no encouragement for it to grow sustainably,” wrote Chuluun Togtokh of the National University of Mongolia in a Nov. 16 Nature essay.

Togtokh presents an alternative ranking system, one that adds per-capita carbon emissions to the Human Development Index’s standard factors of life expectancy, adult literacy and per-capita purchasing power. Carbon emissions are a shorthand for sustainability; though they tend to be linked with income, countries like Norway and Singapore show that high fuel consumption isn’t absolutely necessary for prosperity, and there’s no correlation between fuel consumption and health or education.

When the carbon footprint is added, the Human Development Index is thrown into disarray. Australia, the United States and Canada all drop from the top 10. The United Arab Emirates, Brunei, Qatar and Bahrain — all countries that score high on the standard HDI — also fall. Rising are Hong Kong, Sweden and Switzerland, while Norway stays on top. “Anyone who has visited the Nordic countries will recognize that moderation need not compromise a high standard of living,” wrote Togtokh.

Like any system that puts a numerical score on complex social and economical circumstances, the Human Development Index has been criticized for oversimplification. Togtokh’s system, which he calls the Human Sustainable Development Index, is no different, and it’s certainly possible to be carbon-responsible but overpolluting in other ways. But at least it’s a start.

“With Earth’s human population reaching 7 billion in the past month, it is reasonable to question the UN’s true commitment to sustainability,” wrote Togtokh. “The HDI has shifted the target of development beyond the almighty dollar; the proposed HSDI would go one step further, and change the role models for development.”

outside their compound in eastern Beijing

Auktoriserad translator är en skyddad yrkestitel som bara får innehas av översättare som genomgått kammarkollegiets prov för översättare.

If you're agonizing about your job, recognize that work should reap rewards, but you may be expecting too many

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